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  • Writer's pictureHelen ModernPepper

Korean Radish Kimchi: Kkakdugi (깍두기)🌱 COMPLETE Tutorial, SMALL BATCH RECIPE + Kkukdugi Bibimbap

Updated: Jan 14

If you love kimchi, and the taste of crunchy pickles, you came to the right place!

Kkakdugi (깍두기)/Radish Kimchi is one of the 200 plus varieties of kimchi. Kkakdugi is one of my favorite fall and winter kimchi. Korean radish has this amazingly refreshing taste. It tastes watery, but with a subtle peppery-radish after taste. And if you manage to score fresh Korean radish, straight out of the box, it has this subtle sweet juicy taste, too. I mean, I can eat raw Korean radish all day long, Yup, it is that good!

And, Kkakdugi goes so well with warm Korean beef-based soups, especially beef bone marrow soups...YUM😋

Today's Kkakdugi recipe includes both the traditional recipe as well as the vegan-friendly recipe. It is a COMPLETE-TUTORIAL (SMALL BATCH) recipe as if I'm right there with you going through each process, and explaining the use of each ingredient.

Kkakdugi video recipe is broken down into four parts:

Part I @ 1:50 (Korean radish/substitution options, cleaning, trimming & salt-brining)

Part II @ 12:45 (Kkakdugi Paste Making & Ingredients Review)

Part III @ 20:51 (Kkakdugi Mixing, Storage & Critical Fermentation Info)

Part IV @ 26:40 (Kkakdugi Bibimap recipe & Eating Show/Mukbang/먹방

Yup, I'm going to show you how to make a simple Kkakdugi Bibimbap...drool-worthy delicious😋

*Ingredient substitutions are listed below for friends that do not have access to Korean grocery markets.

🌱Vegan Friends,🌱 Please see my Vegan Kimchi (ChaeShik Kimchi 채식/비건 김치 레시피) video which includes Vegan "Fish" sauce and fermented salt brined seaweed (to replace the fermented salt brined shrimp) recipes. Written Vegan Kimchi Recipe:

🥬Below You'll Find:

INGREDIENTS (*substitutions included)

🦐Homemade Salt Fermented Shrimp Recipe ("SaeWooJeot" 새우젓)

🌿For My GreenThumb Friends (kimchi vegetable seeds & drying method-instructions for red peppers)

Korean Red Pepper Flakes/GoChuGaRu/고춧가루 Shopping & Storage Tips

Common Kimchi Making Mistakes Of Ingredients


RECIPE INSTRUCTIONS (includes troubleshooting tips)

Kkakdugi Storage & Fermentation Information & Tips

I would love to hear from you, so please do leave me comments, questions or simply say Hi...:-)

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Please take a photo of your Radish Kimchi when you make it, posted it on your social media, and TAG @ModernPepper. I would love to see your Radish Kimchi creation!

See you soon in my next video recipe...:-)

Thanks for watching!



(This small-batch kimchi recipe is for up to a TOTAL WEIGHT of 8-9 lbs of fresh radishes. Adjust the amount of the ingredients according to the TOTAL WEIGHT of the radishes you are using)

*Ingredient substitution options

🌱Vegan-Friendly ingredients

Korean Radish (8 - 9 lbs.) *Japanese daikon or small round pink/red radishes (peel the skin off)

Starch Gravy/Pul/풀 (1 Cup Sweet Rice Flour, 2 Cups Water) see below for recipe *Potato Gravy - overcooked into a gravy consistency

1.25 Cups Korean Red Pepper Flakes/GoChuGaRu 고춧가루: Coarse Grind Only

*See below under Korean Red Pepper Flakes/GoChuGaRu/고춧가루 Shopping & Storage Tips

2/3 Cup Korean Beef Bone Broth/사골육수/ShaGolYookSu *🌱Substitution option Dashima broth/다시마 육수 (Use 1/3 Cup for a thicker Kkakdugi paste)

1/4 Cup Fish Sauce/멸치액젓/MeolChiYekJeot *🌱Vegan 'fish' sauce (recipe at Vegan Kimchi, click here to view)

2 Tbsp Korean Plum Extract Syrup (MaesilChung 매실청) *Substitution option: Honey

1 Tbsp Salt Brined Shrimp (Saeu-Jeot 새우젓) *See below for 🦐Homemade Salt Fermented Shrimp Recipe recipe 🌱Salt-Fermented Seaweed (recipe at Vegan Kimchi, click here to view)

1 Tbsp Brown Sugar/흑설탕

Optional Ingredient: 1 gram or 1 Individual Packet Artificial Sweetener *Substitution option: Monk Fruit sweetener, honey, or brown sugar


Approximately 1/2 Cup Brining Salt/Coarse Kosher Salt. MUST use coarse salt.

Starch Gravy

(Options: Sweet White Rice Flour or Potato. If not, All White Flour)

1 Cup Sweet Rice Flour/찹쌀가루/ChapSsalGaRu

2 Cups Water (room temperature)


4 to 5 Scallions/Green Onions/파/Pah (cut into1.5 to 2 inches in length): If you are not adding the up-grade YeolMu열무 (baby radish leaves) listed below, double the number of scallions

6 to 8 Garlic Cloves/마늘/MaNul

Fresh Ginger (2" wide slice of fresh ginger/2 thumbs wide)

1/4 Medium Size Onion (양파/YangPa)

1/4 Korean Pear (배/Bheh) - (onion and pear similar in amount) *Bosc pear. If no pear, use Fuji apple or any sweet apple


6 to 8 sprigs of YeolMu/열무 (baby radish leaves) - Baby radish greens. *Substitution option: Use the leafy greens attached to the round pink/red radishes


Optional: 2 Slices Fresh Squid (O-Jing-Uh 오징어)

🦐Homemade Salt Fermented Shrimp

Mix two parts raw shrimp (cut into chunks/no shell), and one part coarse salt. Add one whole raw shrimp with the head and shell, to the shrimp chunks/coarse salt mixture, and mix well. (For every 1 cup of shrimp chunks, add 1 raw shrimp with the head and shell on.) Store in a glass jar. Gently press down to pack it down and add a layer of plastic wrap on top. Leave the jar in the refrigerator for a week. Then, stir to mix and you should see some shrimp liquid. Pack it down again and add a layer of plastic wrap. Place it in the back part of the refrigerator and another week later, it should be ready for use. If you let it ferment for a month, it is better, but if in a rush, let it ferment for at least a week in the fridge. You can let this ferment for weeks in the fridge.

🌿For My GreenThumb Friends

Here are the seeds to grow your own vegetables for kimchi

(Click on the item to view)

Korean Radish/Mu/무 (you can also use the leafy greens as YeolMu)

🌶Drying & Processing Red Peppers:

Once the green peppers turn bright red on the plant, harvest them. Lay the red peppers under full sunlight, but with some breeze, preferably late mid to late afternoon. (Don't leave them out under scorching sunlight. Under extreme heat/sun, it will "cook" and damage the peppers.) Every other hour, turn over the peppers. Once the sun goes away, bring the pepper indoors, and leave them in a cool part of the kitchen, unwrapped. And repeat the sun drying process, until the peppers are fully sun-dried. This will take days to completely air-dry under the sun, depending on sun exposure. Then split open the dried pepper and remove all the seeds. Using a food processor, pulse-blend to coarse grind. Do not over-blend as the heat of the blades can "burn/cook" the peppers. Double/triple wrap the coarse ground pepper, place in an airtight container, and store in the freezer to preserve its freshness.

🥬Korean Red Pepper Flakes/GoChuGaRu/고춧가루 Shopping & Storage Tips

  • To make kimchi, only coarse-grind GoChuGaru is recommended.

  • If your budget allows, my recommendation is to buy Made In Korea GoChuGaRu. It does cost more than those manufactured in other countries. Personally, I justify spending extra on Made In Korea GoChuGaRu since I am saving so much $$$ when I make my own Kimchi. Store-bought kimchi is delicious, too, but costly when compared to the cost of making homemade kimchi. Also, many families go above and beyond to buy directly from pepper farmers from Korea. When shopping for Made In Korea products, look for the following:

  1. Made in Korea: 한국산 HanGukSan

  2. Domestically Made: 국내산 GukNaeSan or 국산 GukSan

  • Store any unused GoChuGaRu in the freezer to preserve its freshness (double/triple bag it or store it in an airtight container).

  • If you can't find Korean red pepper flakes where you live, go to your local spice purveyor, show them the red pepper flakes from this video, and the link below. Hopefully, they can find you a similar match (with NO seeds and must be a coarse grind).

🥬Common Kimchi Making Mistakes😊

I wholeheartedly appreciate fans of kimchi for making homemade kimchi💛🧡💚. I could see how these common mistakes are made, especially for non-Koreans, that did not grow up eating and being surrounded by Korean cuisine. Just listing these items below as an FYI for those wishing to make authentic-traditional Kkakdugi/radish kimchi. BUT if you are using any of the ingredients below and it works for you, I say do what makes you and your homemade kimchi HAPPY😋. There is NO Kimchi-Police😂😭🤣

The following ingredients are NEVER used to make authentic traditional kimchi:

  • GoChuJang/고추장 (Korean red pepper paste)

  • Soybean paste/된장 (Korean soybean paste) or Japanese miso paste

  • Vinegar/식초

  • Mirin/미린 (cooking wine)

  • SsamJang/쌈장 (condiment for Korean BBQ lettuce wraps)

  • Oyster Sauce (Chinese cooking sauce)

  • Chinese plum sauce

The following substitutions will NOT work for making authentic traditional kimchi:

  • paprika

  • cayenne pepper

  • Italian pepper flakes with seeds

  • Any non-Korean red pepper flakes

  • Finely ground Korean red pepper flakes

(These are affiliate links, which means, I get a small commission when you make a purchase using these links, AT NO EXTRA COST TO YOU. Thank you for your support!)

More Korean ingredients & kitchen gadgets at

Korean Red Pepper Flakes (GoChuGaRu 고춧가루)

100% Premium Korean Origin Red Pepper Powder Chili Flakes From Famous Award-Winning Region of Yeong Yang Korea



100% Premium Korean Origin Dried Red Pepper Powder

MORE Made In Korea Korean Red Pepper Flakes (국내산)

Produced in a safe and sanitary facility in Korea:

Budget-Friendly Korean Red Pepper Flakes

(Mild or Very Spicy)

Premium Korean Anchovy Fish Sauce

Three Crabs Brand Fish Sauce

Natural Premium Sea Salt for Kimchi Brining: the Jewel of Sinan Island by Chung-Jung-One

Made In Korea Coarse Sea Salt

Pacific Ocean Gourmet Sea Salt - 5 lbs. Bulk Medium Coarse Grain by San Francisco Salt Co.

SaltWorks Pure Ocean Sea Salt, Extra Coarse Grain, 5 Pound

Immaculate Baking Organic All-Purpose Flour, 5 Pound

Mochiko (Sweet Rice Flour) - 16oz [Pack of 1]

Cheong Maesil Plum Extract - 420ml

Korean Beksul All-Purpose Plum Extract Syrup 매실청

Ha Bongg Jeong Maesil Plum Extract, 23.64 fl. oz.

100% Pure Raw & Unfiltered Honey - Kosher Certified

Truvia Natural Stevia Sweetener Packets

CJ Beksul Beef Bone Broth Soup Concentrate (2-Pack)

bibigo Korean Beef Bone Broth Soup 17.6 oz (Beef Bone Soup, 3-Pack)

CJ Hetbahn Cooked White Rice, Gluten-Free, Vegan

🌶4.5 Liter Kimchi Container was used in today's video:

Crazy Korean Cooking Premium Kimchi, Sauerkraut Fermentation and Storage Container with Inner Vacuum Lid (1.3 Gal (5.2L))

Premium Kimchi, Sauerkraut Container Probiotic Fermentation with Inner Vacuum Lid (Earthenware Green, 1.9 gal/ 7.4L)

Stainless Steel 101oz(3L)Rectangular Seal Kimchi Food Leakproof Airtight Storage Container

Stainless Steel Food Storage Containers 304 New Clips - Leak-Proof, Airtight, Smell-Proof - Perfect For Camping Trips, Lunches, Leftovers, Soups, Salads & More (Set of 3)

Large Mixing Bowls: "DehYa" 대야




Mamison Quality Kitchen Rubber Gloves (2 Pack) (M)

VitaMix 5200 Blender Professional Grade (64 oz Container)

VitaMix Certified Refurbished (2 Speed Blender)

All-Clad 4204 with loop Stainless Steel Tri-Ply Bonded Dishwasher Safe Sauce Pan with Loop Helper Handle and Lid Cookware, 4-Quart

OXO Good Grips 11-Inch Better Silicone Balloon Whisk

STAR-TOP Handmade Jujube Tree Wooden Korean dinnerware combinations Utensil,Spoons and Chopsticks

Wusthof Classic 8-Inch Chef's Knife

Wüsthof Twelve Piece Block Set

Wusthof Classic 7-piece Slim Knife Block Set

John Boos Maple Wood End Grain Reversible Butcher Block Cutting Board, 20"x 15" x 2.25 Inches


Part I: Trimming, Cutting & Salt-Brining


Look for radishes that are wide, stumpy, heavy, and firm to touch.

The outer layer should feel smooth. Shopping Tip: Ask the produce staff if they have a new box of radishes that just in. Most of the time, they smile and say "wait here." This is how I score really fresh, straight out of the box Korean radishes.

1. Radish Trimming:

Trim off both ends. Using the pointy part of the knife, carve out any dents, and brownish holes. If you can try not to peel off the outer layer of the radish unless it is bruised. The outer layer has so much nutrition, just like the outer layer of carrots. Once you are done with trimming, wash it under cold water.

2. Cutting:

You can cut the radish into cubes into any size of your choice. BUT I prefer to cut them big so that it takes at least 2 bites to finish each Kkakdugi. Keep in mind that by the time the radish ferments (4 weeks later), the size of the radish will shrink about 20%.

I share two ways of cutting the radish. Please go to 5:10 of the Kkakdugi video to view the cutting demonstrations CLICK HERE

3. Salt-Brining (MUST-USE COARSE SALT)

Place the radish pieces in a large mixing bowl. Sprinkle 1/2 Cup of coarse salt. Sprinkle half the salt, hand toss to mix well, and then sprinkle the rest of the salt on top. Let this rest on your kitchen counter for 30 minutes. Now, if you cut your radish into a small one-bite size, let it rest for 15 minutes.

30 minutes, you should see a pool of liquid in the mixing bowl. This is the liquid that is released from the radish. You just started the pickling process.

Rinse the salted radish well, under running cold water. Once you are done rinsing, taste one of the radish pieces. The radish should taste just slightly salty so that it enhances the taste of the radish. If at this point, the radish tastes too salty, soak it in cold water for 5 to 10 minutes, and have a taste again.

Place the rinsed radish in a strainer and let it drain for 15 minutes to remove the excess water. TIP: Place the strainer on a sturdy bowl so it elevates the strainer so that as the excess water drains off, it cascades away from the radish.

KOREAN Coarse Sea Salt: "GulEunSohKum" 굵은소금

Large Mixing Bowls "DehYa" 대야

How To Test If Your Salt Brined Radish Is Ready:

One is to taste it, as instructed above. Second, the edges of the salted brined radish should no longer be sharp and defined. And when you press on it, should still be firm, but with a slightly softened outer layer.

Adding Sweetness To Your Radish:

Place the strained radish into a big mixing bowl. Add 1 Tablespoon of Plum Extract Syrup (MaesilChung 매실청) or honey, 1 Tablespoon of brown sugar (HhukSolTang 흑설탕), and 1/4 cup of Korean red pepper flakes (GoChuGaRu 고춧가루). Mixing well, and let it rest while you prepare the rest of the ingredients. (Some use an artificial sweetener instead of plum extract and brown sugar. If using an artificial sweetener, I would use two individual packets/2 grams or less if you prefer a less sweet taste.

Some people add Sprite, 7Up, or Chilsung Korean soda to the radish and let it soak for about 15 minutes or so. Some remove the excess soda after the soaking period.

Some keep the soda and use it to make the Kkakdugi paste. If following this method, your Kkakdugi and its fermented juice will come out much sweeter and runny. How much to add? I wouldn't add more than half a cup of the soda, but this is up to you.

Plum Extract Syrup MaesilChung 매실청


Mix 1 cup of Sweet Rice Flour (ChapSsalGaRut찹쌀가루) to 1 cup of room temperature water. Whisk well. In a small pot, bring 1 cup of water to boil, then lower to heat to medium-low. Add the flour-water mixture and whisk for 1 to 2 minutes or until it thickens. Transfer the gravy to a mixing bowl and let it cool down to room temperature.

Alternatively, you can use 2 cups of potato gravy (cook peeled potato with water until it is completely dissolved into a gravy consistency liquid).

OR use steamed or baked potato. Add the potato (skin peeled off) to a blender with just enough water to create a thick consistency. Go to 13:28 of the Kkakdugi video to view how to test for its thickness using the back of the spoon. Make enough for 2 cups of this thick cooked potato gravy.

It is also very important to cool down the hot starch gravy before using it to make your Kkakdugi paste. Using hot starch gravy will "cook" the red pepper flakes and turn the color brownish-red.

Korean Sweet Rice Flour: "ChapSsalGaRu" 찹쌀가루

Part II: Kkakdugi Paste Making & Ingredients

Kkakdugi PASTE

Once the starch gravy cools down, add 1 cup of Korean red pepper flakes (GoChuGaRu 고춧가루), 1 Tablespoon of Plum Extract Syrup (MaesilChung 매실청) or honey, and 1/4 Cup Fish Sauce/멸치액젓/MeolChiYekJeot

In a blender, add the garlic, onion, pear, ginger, 1 Tablespoon of salt fermented shrimp (Saeu-Jeot 새우젓) and 2/3 cup of the beef marrow broth (사골육수/ShaGolYookSu). Optional, you can also add the fresh squid (O-Jing-Uh 오징어) to the blender (2 slices). Puree in the blender until liquified.

Use 1/3 cup of the broth if you want to make the Kkakdugi paste extra thick.

🌱Vegan friends use:

Sea kelp broth (Dashima broth 다시마 육수)

Salt-Fermented Seaweed

If you want to see me take apart fresh squid (O-Jing-Uh 오징어), click here to view my Instagram post

Pour the blended liquid into the starch-gravy and GoChuGaRu mixture. Mix well. At this point, the mixture might look as red as it should be, but not worry. After you mix it with the radish, and about 30 minutes later the redness will come through as it needs to soak more with the paste.

Korean Bone Marrow Broth Soup: "ShaGolYookSu" 사골육수

TIP: If your fish sauce doesn't look clear (can't see through the bottle because it looks murky), then get a new bottle.

Korean Kitchen Rubber Gloves: "GoMuJangGhap" 고무 장갑

Part III: Kkakdugi Mixing, Storage & Fermentation

Paste Mixing

Cut up the scallions and baby radish greens (yeolmu 열무) into about 2 inches in length, and add it to the mixing bowl with radish.

If you are not using yeoulmu, use 8 scallions. If using both scallions and yeolmu, add 4 scallions, and 6 -8 sprig of radish greens.

Now is the time to put on your heavy-duty kitchen gloves. The paste is very acidic so protect your skin. Pour the Kkakdugi paste into the radish bowl, and mix gently in a circular motion.

Here is the fun part! You get to taste it. Does it taste salty enough for you? Sweet enough? Spicy enough. For a saltier taste, add some coarse salt. For a sweeter taste, add some Plum Extract Syrup, or any sweetener of your choice. Add more Korean red pepper flakes (GoChuGaRu 고춧가루).

Storage & Fermentation

Transfer the Kkakdugi to an air-tight container, preferably kimchi container. Make sure you leave about an inch of space to the rim, to leave some room for gas build up and the paste bubbling as it ferments. Lay a sheet of plastic wrap on top. Gently press down on plastic wrap. This is to release pockets of air below. Cover with the lid, and let it rest on your kitchen counter for 48 hours, away from the heat and sun. If you are making this during the summer months (or you have a "hot" kitchen), let it rest for 24 hours.

This resting period on the kitchen counter is to start the fermentation process. After the resting period, store it in the fridge to let it slowly ferment.

"OH NO, my radish kimchi is making clear brownish juice?!?"

This clear brownish liquid you may see at the beginning of the fermentation is NORMAL.

If you see this clear-brownish liquid separation during the kitchen-counter-resting period, gently press down on the Kkakdugi to reincorporate the kimchi liquid. This liquid separation is normal, so not to worry. As the Kkakdugi ferments, all the liquids will ferment together, resulting in delicious and highly addictive Kkakdugi liquid that you can gulp spoonfuls of, and cook with...:-)

To give your Kkakdugi extra TLC, every two weeks, mix the radish around. Always keep your Kkakdugi covered with a sheet of plastic wrap inside the kimchi container. It is like a blanket to keep the moisture as closely contained as possible.

🥬FERMENTATION "The Waiting-Period" & Fermentation Taste Preferences

How tangy/sour or fresh-tasting you prefer your kimchi is very personal to each individual. Personally, I start eating my Kkakdugi right away for that fresh taste of all the spices and the raw taste of the radish. Some people starting eating it 3 to 4 days later (after it started fermenting in the refrigerator). Every week, the taste of your Kkakdugi will change as it ferments more. For me, I love the taste of Kkakdugi each week, as it ferments more and more. My husband, on the other hand, loves it around weeks 6. I usually eat my Kkakdugi past 2 months of fermenting. Usually, by the end of 2 months, everything is eaten. For me, after the 2-month mark, it might taste too tangy to eat as is. You can recycle the extra-fermented Kkakdugi to make Kimchi Fried Rice.

"Does radish kimchi ever go bad?"

No, not really. As long as the radish kimchi is stored in the fridge or at cool temperature (buried in the ground in a clay pot, in a shaded part of the yard) it can be fermented for an extended period. Simply put, you just eat through it until it is all gone.

And perfectly fermented Kkakdugi is absolutely a MUST when having Galbitang 갈비탕 and other beef bone-based soups (SseolLungTang 설렁탕, GomTang 곰탕, SoGoGheeMuGuk 소고기무국...etc).

Galbitang 갈비탕: Korean Beef Short Ribs Soup Recipe & Eating Show/Mukbang 갈비탕 맛있게 끓이는법 (황금레시피) + 먹방

Part IV: Kkakdugi Bibimbap 깍두기 비빔밥

Once the Kkakdugi ferments for at least a month, the Kkakdugi paste will be super delicious to have as your bibimbap sauce with warm Korean rice.

Cut up the Kkakdugi with scissors in a bowl or a plate to spare yourself the pain of cleaning up the Kkakdugi juice stain on the cutting board. Add the cut-up Kkakdugi to a bowl of warm Korean rice, add some toasted seaweed crumbles, 1 Tablespoon of fermented Kkakdugi liquid (add less if you prefer less spicy), and drizzle some sesame oil. Mix well and enjoy! SO SIMPLE but it will SO-HIT-THE-SPOT😋

If you want to dress it up a bit, add some scrambled egg, avocado cubes, julienned romaine lettuce to your Kkakdugi bibimbap above. The combination is UH-AMAZINGLY DELICIOUS😋

Microwavable Cooked Korean Rice

Sesame Oil

Toasted Seaweed

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Check out my Non-Spicy White/Baek Kimchi and Cucumber Kimchi (proper name is "OYeeSohBhackYee" 오이소박이) recipes. Click on the link below.

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How To Make EASY Kimchi

Video & Written AUTHENTIC Kimchi Recipe; EASY-To-Follow Kimchi Recipe with CLEAR INSTRUCTIONS. Includes Kimchi Fermentation & Storage TIPS; Debunking misinformed Kimchi making myths. Napa Cabbage Kimchi, Korean Traditional Kimchi, 배추김치 레시피, 막김치, 포기김치, 김장김치, 통배추김치, 김치 만들기, 김치 담그는법, 영어로 キムチのレシピ, Korean Kimchi, Korean Food

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